MBA Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Model Paper Set
MBA Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Model Paper Set
Consumers as Individuals and in the Social Context : Consumer perception, Consumer altitude formation & Change, Behavio leaming theories and Cognitive learning theories to consumer behaviour Reference groups, Family, gender and Age Influences, Social class Consumer behaviour, Cultural influences on consumer behaviour
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. Define the term perception.
Ans. Perception means what we see the world around us. Two individuals may describe the story differently. Perception may be defined as process by which an individual selects, organises and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.
Q.2. What is stimulus?
Ans. A stimulus is a unit of input to any of the senses (ear, eyes, nose, tongue and skin). Stimuli include product, package, ad, etc.
Q.3. What is subliminal perception?
Ans. Stimuli that are too weak or too short to be consciously seen or heard may nevertheless strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptor cells. This process is called subliminal perception.
Q.4. What is perceptual selection?
Ans. Consumers are by nature selective. An individual who is exposed to a number of stimuli will perceive only those which satisfy his needs. He ignores what is not relevant and selects what is relevant to him. Thus, perceptual selection is nothing but the selection of the inputs or stimuli by the individuals.
Q.5. What do you understand by perceptual organisation?
Ans. People select a number of stimuli from the environments and organise them into groups. The perceived characteristics of even the simplest stimulus are considered as a function of the whole. So, the occurrence of different sequential activities when the stimulus is received by an individual is called perceptual organisation.
Q.6. What do you mean by perceived risk?
Ans. Consequences of purchase decisions are always uncertain and they involve certain degree of risk. Such risk is inherent in every buying decision and is called perceived risk.
Q.7. Define the term attitude.
Ans. Attitudes are expression of inner feeling about a person, product, service, brand or store that reflect whether a person is favourably or unfavourably predisposed to the objects,
Attitude may be defined as a behaviour where how positive or negative, favourable or unfavourable a person feels towards an object.
Q.8. What are the important characteristics of attitude?
Ans. The important characteristics of attitudes are as follows:
- Attitudes have an object. 2. Attitudes have directives, degree and intensity
- Attitudes have consistency.
- Attitudes occur within a situation.
- Attitudes are learned predispositions.
Q.9. What do you understand by leaming?
Ans. Learning is a process by which consumer acquires purchase and consumption knowledge. Thus, learning is a never ending process by which consumer acquires knowledge. Knowledge may be acquired or learnt from experience.
Q.10. List out various types of learned behaviour
. Ans. Nearly every behaviour is learned. The following are some learned behaviours:
- Physical behaviour.
- Symbolic learning and problem solving behaviour
- Affective learning.
Q.11. What are the basic principles of learning?
Ans. Basic principles of learning are:
- Motivation: It fosters the process of learning
- Cues: It affects the manner in which a customer responds to a motive.
- Response: It is a mental or physical activity which customers go through in order to respond to a stimulus situation.
- Reinforcement: It refers to any negative or positive result influencing the probability of a
Q.12. What is behaviour modification?
Ans. Behaviour modification is group of intervention techniques for controlling consumer behaviour, i.e. focus is placed on how environmental events (stimuli, enforcement and the like) are modified to bring about changes in the way people act. Behaviour modification is the role of internal psychological process (needs, motives, attitudes, etc.) and the concept of learning when behavioural change is considered in people.
Q.13. What do you mean by reference group?
Ans. Reference groups are groups that serve as a frame of reference for individual in their purchase decision. A reference group may be defined as any person or group that serves as a point of comparison for an individual in the formation of either general or specific values, attitudes or behaviour.
- What do you mean by consumer socialisation?
Ans. Consumer socialisation is the process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace.
Q.15. How can the reference groups be classified?
Ans. Reference groups can be classified in terms of a person’s membership or degree of involvement with the group as well as in terms of the positive or the negative influences which they have on his or her values, attitudes and behaviour.
Q.16. What is a contractual group?
Ans. A contractual group is one in which a person holds membership or has regular face-to-face contact and of whese values, attitudes and standards he or she approves. Such a group has a congruent influence on an individual’s attitudes or behaviour.
Q.17. Who are opinion leaders?
Ans. Opinion leaders are those people who are able to expert personal influence in a given Situation. They are those to whom others look for advice and information
Q.18. What do you mean by opinion leadership?
Ans. Opinion leadership is the process by which one person, le, the opinion leader informally influences the actions or the attitudes of others who may be opinion seekers or opinion recipients. They offer informal advice about the product or service.
Q.19. What is family?
Ans. The term family is a very basic concept. However, it is not an easy task to define precisely because the family concept and the role played by its members vary considerably from society ta society. However, a family may be defined as two or more persons related by blood, marriage on adoption who resides together.
Q.20. What are basic functions of the family?
Ans. There are four basic functions of a family which are particularly relevant to a discussion of consumer behaviour:
- Economic well-being.
- Emotional p0support.
- Suitable life styles.
- Childhood socialisation.
Q.21. Who is the initiator?
Ans. Initiator is a family member who recognises the problem or need for the item,e.g. a suggestion may come from the wife to purchase a food processor in order to prepare meals more easily
Q.22. Who is the influencer?
Ans. Influencer is a person who informs or persuades others in a purchase situation. He may also be
referred as opinion leader in that he exerts personal influence on
other family members with regard to a particular purchase wledge
decision. O Social class o
Q.23. List out the various stages of family. is a broad group in
Ans. Traditional family life cycle has the following five stages: society having common
- Bachelorhood. economic, cultural or
- Honeymooners. political status.
Q.24. Define the term social class.
Ans. As we know that all people in the society are not equal. Some are quite equal, some are below equal and some are above equal. People in the society are ranked and those in the same rank are called equals and also a social class.
Q.25. What are the characteristics of social class?
Ans. The characteristics of social class are:
- Social classes are multidimensional.
- They are hierarchical.
- Social classes are homogeneous and dynamic.
- Social classes restrict behaviour.
Q.26. What Is culture?
Ans. Culture is an image of the total society in terms of language, law, region, food customs, music, art, history, etc. It is a sum total of learned belief, values and customs that serve to regulate the behaviour of consumer.
Q.27. What is sub-culture?
Ans. A sub-culture is a culture within culture. There are more than one segments in the total culture which have their own beliefs, traditions, values, etc. distinct from other sub-cultures. 0lture are:
- Give the characteristics of sub culture.
Ans. The characteristics of sub-cuarity:
- Uniqueness: Function of how unique or distincta sub-culture is from the other sub-cultures
2.Sunukarut:Function of similar values shared by the group members
- Exclusion: This helps to maintain a distinct identity and has a greater influence on its
0.29. What is the impact of sub-culture on consumer behaviour?
Ans. The impact of sub-culture on consumer behaviour is described as:
- Unique traditions and behaviours.
- Urban, sub-urban and rural distinctions.
- Consumption as per age group.
- Religious association
0.30. What do you mean by cross-cultural influences?
Ans. Cross-cultural influences are the variations that influence marketing strategies. It includes the value system that varies across cultures and affects consumption.