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MBA Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Sample Model Paper

MBA Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Sample Model Paper

MBA  Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Sample Model Paper

MBA Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Sample Model Paper

Consumers as Individuals and in the Social Context : Consumer perception, Consumer altitude formation & Change, Behavio leaming theories and Cognitive learning theories to consumer beho Reference groups, Family, gender and Age Influences, Social clas Consumer behaviour, Cultural influences on consumer behaviour

MBA Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Sample Model Paper
MBA Consumers Individuals Social Context Question Sample Model Paper

Section B


Q.1. What is perception? Write a note on sensation and sensory thresholds.

Ans. Perception: Perception means what we see the world around us. Two individuals may describe the story differently. A motivated person works to the best of his ability but how he works depend on how he perceives the situation. Perception may be defined as ‘process by which an individual selects, organise and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.” A stimulus is a unit of input to any of the senses. Stimuli include product, package, ad, etc.

Sensation: Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to simple stimuli (an advertisement, a package, a brand name) to the experiment of sensation. Sensitivity of stimuli varies from person to person depending on the quality of his sensory receptors and the intensity of stimuli to which he or she is exposed, for example a blind may have more highly developed sense of hearing. An unchanging situation provides no sensation.

Sensory Thresholds: It is representative of that critical power or strength that a stimulus must reach in order to be noticed. It can be different for different individuals. On a broad the following types:

  1. The Absolute Threshold: It is the lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation. We experience a sensation when a situation changes and we feel difference between something and nothing Under constant conditions of constant stimulation, the absolute threshold increase because we get used to a particular situation. This is called adaption or becoming! accommodated to a certain level of stimulation
  2. The Differential Threshold: It is the minimum difference that can be detected between the two stimuli. This threshold is discovered by E. Weber and is called Weber’s law. He discovered the

just  Noticeable Difference (IND) between two stimuli was not an absolute amount butan relative to the intensity of the first stimulus. The stronger the initial stimulus, the greate additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different.

0.2. What is perceptual selection? Give major factors on which the stimuli et selected

Ans. Perceptual Selection Consumers are by nature selective. They unconsciously great deal of selectivity as regards different stimuli present in the environment. There are a me stimuli in the environment and the individual cannot perceive all of them. An individual may something goes others and turn away still from other. In total, people actually perceive only fraction of the stimuli to which they are exposed. Thus, perceptual selection is nothing but the sea of the inputs or stimuli by the individuals.

For example: A woman in the supermarket may be exposed literally thousands of produse different colours, sttes and shapes to perhaps hundreds of people around herself (looling wa searching talking etc.) to smells from fruits, meats, disinfectants to sounds within the stores and outside the store. Yet she manages on a regular basis to visit supermarket to select the item of produ needs, pays for them and leave all within a relatively brief time without losing her sanity or her per orientation to the world around her. It is because she exercises selectivity in her perception.

Factors on which Stimull get Selected

The selected stimuli depend on the three major factors. Each of these factors affect the consum selective exposure to and selective exposure of the stimulus itself.

  1. Nature of the stimulus: Marketing stimuli include a number of variables such as nature of product, its physical attribution, its package design, brand name, etc. which affects the con perception in general, contrast is the most attention drawing attribute of a stimull. Nature of stimuli means which attract the attention. Advertisers try to draw the attention of the consumersus maximum contrast


  1. Her/His Expectation: People usually see what they expect to see. They expect to see what the used to see usually based on their past experience. People in marketing perceive only those product which are according to their expectation and ignores others.
  2. Motives at the Time: Motives or needs perceive the things. A person will see the advertisement which is likely to fulfil their needs and ignores other advertisements, Marketers perceive the needs al the consumers and tend to fulfil them.

Q.3, Explain important selective perception concepts.

Ans. Selective Perception Concepts: The consumers selection of stimull depends upon interaction of expectations and motives with the stimulus itself. These factors give rise to a number al important concepts concerning perception. Such concepts are as follows:

  1. Selective Attention: People are exposed daily to a tremendous amount of daily stimuli. A person cannot possibly attend to all of these stimull. Most stimuli to which he is decreased awareness are to be screened out Consumer will attend those stimuli that meet their needs or interests and ignores those stimuli which are quite unrelated to their needs and interests. Out of innumerable advertisements a person sees daily, will notice only those ads in which he is interested. One will notice the ads of computers, if he or she is interested to buy one, he or she will not notice other ads. Stimuli which are likely not to affect his interests, will remain unnoticed. Similarly, he/she will regard those stores with which he/she is familiar and will disregard others.

People are more likely to notice stimuli that they anticipate. One is more likely to notice computer In a computer store because he does not anticipate radios on that store. People are more likely to notice stimuli whose deviations are abnormal

Selective attention means that marketers work hard to draw the attention of the consumers. The message for the purchase of the product will be lost if they fail to attract attention of the people. S that are larger in size or coloured or novelin message or provide contrastare more likely to be noticed

  1. Selective Distortion: Consumer subconsiously screen out stimuli that, for them are important not to see, even though exposure had already taken place. The threatening or otherwise damaging stimulus are less likely to achieve awareness than natural stimuli at the same level of exposure. Sometimes, people tend to distort the information that is not consistent to their needs, values and beller and give them a personal meaning

For example, a sales person has described all the good and bad points of a product he is to sell. The consumer who likes it may discount the negative statement of the sales person in order to buy the product. Thus, consumer hear what they want to hear rather than what has actually been said

  1. Selective Retention: People forget much than they learn. They will tend to retain information that supports their views, beliefs and attitudes and forget others which do not support, Hundreds of advertisements seen daily are not remembered by the viewers or listeners. They forget most of them which are not of their interest and remember only those that support their belief, etc. When a sales person describe the good and bad points of the product, the consumer remembers only good points of the product, if he purchase the product and will not bother about the negative points.

Q.4. Explain in brief, the interpretation of semiotics in perception.

Ans. Semiotics in Perception: Semiotics is a content.driven or perceptual theory that see humans as complex as have the ability to create complex meanings for the things we see. A sign simply is anything that stands for anything else. For example, a.checkmark on an assignment means correct. As humans, we have a natural desire to make meanings of things we see. One of the ways we make things

on the creation of and the interpretation of signs’. Each of us is born into a culture that has signs and symbols. As we grow, we learn the signs of the culture as well as create our own interpretations. We build our own personal visual libraries. The more knowledge and experience we have, the more we are able to interpret signs. In semiotics, three types of signs are distinguished-Icon, index and symbol.

  1. An icon is a sign that stands for an object by resembling it. eg pictures, maps and diagrams. 2. Indexes refer to their objects not by virtue of any similarity relation but ratheran actual causal

link between the sign and its object, eg Smoke is an index of fire.

  1. Symbols refer to their objects by virtue of law, rule or convention, e.g. words, propositions and

texts. In essence, humans can create via signs a world entirely separate from one of direct experience.

Q.5. What is a perceived risk? What are its different types?

Ans. Perceived Risk: Perceived risk is the uncertainty a consumer has when buying items, mostly those that are particularly expensive, eg.cars, houses and computers. Every time a consumer considers buying a product, he or she has certain doubts about the product, especially if the product in question is highly priced.

Types of Perceived Risk

The different types of perceived risk are as follows:

  1. Functional Risk: One of the most common types of perceived risk, functional or quality risk refers to the fear that a product or service will fail to deliver promised functions or benefits. A new computer, might fail to run the resource-intensive, audio editing program a sound engineer needs to perform her job
  2. Social Risk: Social risk refers to the possibility that buying a product or using a service can reduce a person’s status with friends, family or neighbours. If someone purchases a pure-bred dog and
  3. Attitudes Possess Direction: Attitudes have direction, degree and intensity.
  4. Attitudes are Learned Predisposition: Attitudes are learned through experience or Information acquired from others.
  5. Attitudes have consistency: Attitudes must be consistent with behaviour.
  6. Attitudes occur within a situation: Attitudes may differ from situation to situation.

0.7. How can you measure the attitudes?


Ans. Measurement of Attitudes: There are three methods generally employed for the measurement of attitudes:

  1. Observation and Inference: Under this method, we observe the Nedge behaviour of the consumer and infer the attitude. This act can be done by O Consumerso

any person professional or otherwise. But such inference may be attitude towards

subjective or may be the result of single activity. behaviour includes the

  1. Qualitative Research Methods: It covers two methods beliefs and attitudes

(a) Depth interview and (b) Group Discussion under depth about specific acts of interview, persons are interviewed by an expert for inferring behaviour

result in group session, persons are encouraged to discuss the object in groups of eight or ten and infer results.

  1. Self-report Attitudes Scales: There are three such scales

( a) Likert Scale: It is an agreementale which is the respondents an opportunity to indicate

the degree of agreementy disagreement with the series of statements.

(b) Semantic Differential Scale. These are more similar to likert scale. It consists of a series on

bipolar antonyms such as good or bad, liberal conservation, etc. The respondent evaluates

the attitudes at 5 or 7 point scale.

(c) Rank Order Scale: It ranks the different models of a product in terms of some criterion such

as clarity in picture, techniques used, etc. in television sets

Q.8. Explain the various types of attitude.

Ans. Types of Attitude: The various types of attitude are as follows:

  1. Job Satisfaction: This refers to an individual’s peneral attitude towards his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes towards the job. While a person who is dissatisfied with his/her job, holds negative attitudes about the job.
  2. Job Involvement: The degree to which nersen Identifies with his or her job activity participates in it and considers his or her performance important to sell worth
  3. Organisation Commitment: The degree to which an employee identities with a particular organisation and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organisation

0.9. What is learning? Explain its nature. Discuss different types of learned behaviour.

Ans. Learning: Learning is a process by which consumers acquire purchase and consumption knowledge. Thus, learning is a never ending process by which consumer acquires knowledge Knowledge may be acquired or learnt from experience. Actions are generally based on knowledge acquired. Learning may be intentional or incidental. Learning can also be viewed as a change in behaviour permanently. Nature of Learning: It is explained as follows:

  1. Learning involves constant growth and development.
  2. Learning is adjustment and a systematised experience.
  3. Learning involves attainment of knowledge and skills.
  4. Learning is a continuous and conditioning process.
  5. Learning is a transferable process and involves change. Types of Learned Behaviour

Nearly every behaviour is learned. The following are some types of learned behaviour

  1. Physical Behaviour: We learn physical behaviour in responding to a variety of situations. Walking, talking, interacting with others are physical behaviour.
  2. Symbolic Learning and Problem Solving Learning: Learning may be from different symbols. We identify the product by their brand names. Such symbols may be brand name, slogans or sign.
  3. Effective Learning: Consumers learn from environment. Consumers know their needs, desires. wants, etc. and also what product satisfy their needs. Thus, consumers develop their positive or negative image of the company and its product

 Q.10. What are the basic principles of learning?

Ans.Basic Principles of Learning: Basic principles of learning are motives, cues, response and reinforcement

  1. Motives: Motive arousal is needed to engage learning, activations, needs and goals spur to learning. It is important for a marketer to know why consumers purchase their product and how it satisfies their needs.
  2. Cues: Cues provide directions to a motivated activity.

Thus, it influences the manner in consumers respond to a motive. Cues serve to direct consumers drives when they confirm expectations

  1. Response: A response may be viewed as a mental or physical activity consumers make in to a stimulus situation. These are learned through experience, overtime in facing that situation
  2. Reinforcement: Reinforcement is a repeated behaviour in future in similar situatia Reinforcement serves to teach consumers a desired behaviour, therefore, marketers introdu negative reinforcement such as cash discount to make timely payment of bills by consumers

 Q.11. Discuss the classical conditioning theory of learning.

Ans. Classical Conditioning Theory: The word conditioned means an automatic response to situation built up through repeated exposure. The theory was first developed by a Russian psycholo by establishing a relationship between stimulus and response.

According to him, conditioned learning results when a stimulus works with another stimulus the shows a known response serve to produce the same response by itself. He proved this theory with the belp of dogs. When he sounded a tone, the hungry dogs got a meat paste. This practice was repeated sufficient number of times. Learning occurred when after sufficient number of repetitions of the tona followed by food, the tone alone caused salivation. The tone has been learned to an indicator to the reward of meat paste. There is stimulus response learning (bells food).

 Q.12. What are the basic principles of conditioned learning theory?

Ans. Basic Principles of Conditioned Learning: There are three basic principles of conditioned learning:

  1. Repetition: There must be repeated stimulus response. Consumers may learn a message which marketers want to impart by repeated exposure through TV or print media. It will familiarise the name of the brand to the consumers, because it keeps the memory alive. Repetition aids retention of message.
  2. Stimulus Generalisation: Learning also needs stimulus generalisations, Le to make the same response to same stimulus. It explains why manufacturer of a private brand try to make marketing strategy on this line is the product line extension, le adding related products to an already established brand. Family branding is an extension of this strategy.
  3. Stimulus Discrimination: It is opposite to stimulus generalisation. It is an important concept of marketing. Every market discriminates his product from those of the competitors to get his position in the market.

Q.13. Write a note on consumer socialisation process.

Ans. Consumer Socialisation Process: Consumer socialisation is the process by which the young people acquire skills, knowledge and attitudes relevant to their functioning in the marketplace. The process starts in children while accompanying their parents to stores, malls, etc. In the beginning the children make requests for their preferred products, but as they grow older they start making their own choices in the store. At the age of five, most of the children make purchases with the help of their parents and grandparents and by eight years they become independent consumers. The socialisation agents for children are family, peers and media in which the family sex role orientation, parental style and communication pattern have main impact on children’s purchase behaviour.

Social status of family has a major role in consumer socialisation of children. Children from well-educated families are able to perceive persuasive intent in ads very easily. Children from families with higher socio-economic set up are found to socialise faster. Today, children have taken am important place in the society than their parents ever had. They not only are consumers but have a considerable influence may it be direct or indirect influence in the family purchase decisions

0.14. What is the effect of reference runs on broduct and brand purchaser

Ans. Effect of Reference Group: Reference group concepts have been

erence Group: Reference group concepts have been used by advertisers in their efforts to persuade consumers to purchase reducts and brands Alluding to reference groups in persuasive attempts to market products and brands demonstrate the belief that reference groups expose people to behaviour and lifestyles Influence self-concept development contribute

tantribute to the formation of values and attitudes and generate pressure for conformity to group norms.

group norms. The three types of reference group influences have been observed:

  1. Informational influence: Itihased on the desire to make informed decisions. Faced with uncertainty, an individual will seek information From the many sources available, the most likely to be accepted are those viewed as credible.
  2. Utilitarian Influence: It is reflected in attempts to comply with the wishes of others to achieve rewards or avoid punishments. If an individual feels that certain types of behaviour will result in rewards or punishments from others and the outcomes are viewed as important he or she will find it useful to meet the expectations of others
  3. Value-Expressive influence: it is characterised by the need for psychological association with a person or group and is reflected in the acceptance of positions expressed by others. This association can take two forms-one is an attempt to resemble or be like the reference group and the other flows from an attachment or liking for the group Q.15. Who are opinion leaders? What are the different types of opinion leaders?

Ans. Opinion Leaders: Opinion leaders are individuals to whom an opinion seeker turns for advice or product related information while making purchase decisions. It can be a result of passive exchange of information in a group discussion or of information being actively exchanged. The major features of opinion leadership are credibility, exchange of information as well as advice related to one core-category and two-way flow of information

Types of Opinion Leaders

Opinion leaders are generally knowledgeable about one-core category and some related categories. There are some special types of opinion leaders who differ in their area of knowledge and Influence over the opinion-seeker.

  1. Generalised Opinion Leaders: They are knowledgeable about multiple product categories.
  2. Market Mavens: They are knowledgeable about general market trends.
  3. Surrogate Buyers: They are experts hired to make product-related recommendations and even purchase on behalf of the consumer.
  4. Purchase Pals: They are strong and weaktie people who accompany and assist an individual in shopping

Q.16. What are the ways of Identifying opinion leaders?

 Ans. Ways of Identifying Opinion Leaders: There are four ways of identifying opinion leaders:

  1. Obiective Method: The objective method of determining opinion leadership is somewhat same as a controlled experiment. It involves placing the new products or new product information with selected individuals and then tracing the resulting web’ of interpersonal communication related to the relevant product(s).
  2. Self-Designating Method: In the self-designating method, respondents are asked to evaluate the extent to which they have provided others regarding information about a product category or specific brand or have otherwise influenced the purchase decisions of others.
  3. Socio-Metric Method: The socio-metric method measures the person-to-person informal communication of consumers related to products categories. In this method, respondents are asked to identify

(a)The specific individuals (if any) to whom they provided advice or information related to the product or brand under study and

(b)specific individuals (any) who provided them with advice or information related to the product or brand under study.

  1. Key Informant Method: Opinion leadership can also be measured by the use of a key informan person who is keenly aware of knowledge about the nature of social communications amon members of a specific group. The key informant is asked to identify the individuals in the group who are most likely to be opinion leaders

0.17.Can reference group concept be effectively used for promotional purposes? What are the benefits of reference group appeal?

Ans. Reference Group and Promotion: Marketeers generally use the reference groups for

promoting their products. Mainly three major reference group appeals are wledge B used for promotional purposes. These are as follows: O People o

  1. Celebrity Appeals: Celebrities are persons who are admired by whose attitudes,

the public on one counter or the other. Such persons are athletes behaviour, beliefs, cine stars, sport heroes and TV personalities. Advertisers use these opinions, preferences and celebrities for promoting their products with the expectation that

values are used by an their appeal would react their readers or viewers. They influence individual as the basis for

the attitude or behaviour of consumer in any of the following ways his or her judgement are

(a) Testimonal: When celebrity used the product before included in a reference recommending the product group

(b) Endorsement When celebrity recommend the product

without making any use of it

(C) Actor: When celebrity also act in promoting the product

 (d) Spokesperson: Spokesperson is closely associated person with the company or brand.

  1. Expert Appeals: Expert is a person who has a unique position by his occupation, special training or experience and therefore he influences the prospective consumers by his advice for purchasing the products
  2. Common Man Appeals: Marketers also employ common man for promoting their product. It is because consumers think that common man for granted and believe him thinking that he is also among

Such appeals are more effective. A group of common man is also used for such appeals.

Other Reference Groups: Other reference groups are also used for promoting the products. These groups are as follows:

  1. Executives: Some companies present their top executives as spokesperson in consumer advertisement
  2. Retailers and Editiorial Contents: Some respected retails and the editorial contents of selected special interest magazines can also function as frame of reference that influence consumers’ attitude and behaviour
  3. Trade Characters and Cartoon Characters: It is interesting that trade characters like Joo cartoon characters, like Mickey Mouse also serves as a kind of quasi-celebrity endorsers.
  4. Seal of Approval and Product Rating: These can serve as positive endorsements that encourage consumers to act favourably towards advertised product.

Benefits of Reference Group Appeals: There are two benefits to reference group appeals:

  1. Increased brand awareness,
  2. Reduced perceived risk to the consumer.

Q.18. What is the role of gender and are in family decision-making?

Ans. Role of Gender and Age in Decision-making: A family mainly consists of husband, wil children. It is an important factor by which family member is dominant or considered to be the


A family may be patriarchal, in which case, the husband or father is considered to be the dominant member who takes purchase decision. In a matriarchal family mother or wife is the dominant member of the family and makes most of the decisions, while in an equalitarian family, husband and wife both share somewhat equally in decision-making.

We are gradually moving toward a child centered family in which children have a strong influence on their parents consumption decisions and parents often yield to children demand in product selection

The role of gender and age in family decision-making is as follows:

  1. Dynamics of Husband/wife Decision-making Because the married couple is the basic decision-making unit, it is very important for researchers as well as for marketers to know the relative strengths of husband and wife influence on family consumption decision. Most researches classily family consumption decisions as husband dominated, wife dominated joint (syneratic and autonomie (or unilateral).

(a) Product or Service Variation: The dominant area depends on the product or service to be purchased

 (b) Variation by Family Role Structure Orientation: If women who perceive financial need as

the cause of their working tend to make autonomic decision on various matters of their family


(C) Variation by Stage in Decision-making Process: The role of husband and wife differs in different stages of decision-making process.

(d) Variation by Product Features: Products like automobiles and television are husband

dominated, whereas washing machine is wife dominated.

  1. Decision by Children: Children not only are influenced by family decisions but they also exert influences on their families in terms of family’s purchase decisions. The impact of TV viewing varies among children in different age groups. Parents express concern regarding the impact of TV advertising

Teenage boys aged 16 to19 spend most of their money on movies, dating, entertainment, carn expenses, clothing, while girls of the same age spend money on clothing, cosmetics and fragrances Teenage are important market segments because they influence family decision-making

Thus, children yield important influence in family’s purchase decision and thus constitute an important market segment. 

Q.19. Define social class and explain its nature.

Ans. Social Class: As we know that all people in the society are not equal. Some are quite equal some are below equal. People in the society are ranked and those in the same rank are called equals and also a social class. People in a society are ranked by other members of a society into higher or lowe positions, which produces a hierarchy of respect or prestige. Thus, a social class is a division of the society into same status class and the members of each class have the same status and behaviour.

Nature of Social Class

A social class refers to a group of people who have approximately the equal position in the societ The following are some characteristics of a social class:

  1. Exhibits Social Status: Members of one social class enjoy almost the similar status.
  2. Multidimensional: Social classes are multi-dimensional and are divided on the basis of number of factors such as income, wealth, occupation etc.
  3. Hierarchical: Social classes are hierarchical vertically from higher to lower status
  4. Restrict Behaviour: Behaviours and attitudes of almost all members of a class are simila
  5. Homogeneous: Social classes are homogeneous having similar behaviour and attitude,
  6. Dynamic: Social classes are dynamic.
  7. Frame of References: Social classes are used as frame of references.

Q.20. Discuss the life style profiles of different social classes. How the segmentation of affluen market is done by the marketers?

Or Discuss India’s socio-economic classification.

 Ans. Life Style Profiles: Life style is the pattern of living whose influences are reflected hul consumption behaviour Researches indicate that each social class has a distinct life style from other social class or classes. In India socio-economic criteria has been employed to categorise the social classes. A profile of each social class is given below:

  1. Upper Upper Class: They are aristocrates by birth and are rich prestigious and have good occupations of high prestige. In number, it is a very small group.
  2. Lower-Upper Class: This class is newly rich class. They are executive elites and have high Income.
  3. Upper-Middle Class: This class consists of successful professionals, business owners organisation men and college graduates who are likely to join these professions. Their Roal is social advancement
  4. Middle Class: It is the biggest class which consists of average men/women. They strive for respectability and striving. They dwell in well maintained homes. They use the popular products.
  5. Working Class: This is a poor but honest class and talk and like to live in family. They have money but do not purchase respectably. They value the present and avoid the future. There are

his class. They undertake a traditional job. Their central focus is child-care and to own family responsibility, Generally lady employment is not considered good. They take their traditional roles. They avoid self-work.

  1. Upper-Lower Class: This class is working poor but is above poverty line. They have no steady employment but some way earn their livelihood.
  2. Lower-Lower Class: This class is below poverty line and earns most of their income from illegal sources. They hardly hold anything. They have bad reputation.

Q.21. What are the three components of social class?

Ans. Components of Social Class: There are three components of social class which form stratification hierarchy–class, status and power. There are related sources of power though they are separate, having different effects on social action

  1. Class: It is a person’s economic position in a society based on birth and individual achievement It also involves both the amount and the source of income.
  2. Status: It refers to a person’s prestige, social honour or popularity in a society. Political status is not rooted solely in capital value but also in one’s individual status. It shows the perception of people regarding the value attached with occupations.
  3. Power: It refers to a person’s ability to get their way despite the resistance of others. For example, Individuals in state jobs may hold little property or status, but they still hold immense power.

0.22. What is the impact of social class on consumer behaviour?

Ans. Impact of Social Class: Consumer behaviour is influenced by environment in which one lives. Social class has great impact on consumer behaviour. Divisions within the society are differentiated by socio-economic status differences. Social class is measured in terms of social status such as profession Income, quality of neighbourhood and dollar value of residence and do not consider cash, region and other social factors stating that consumer behaviour study is different from socio-culture study.

Social class is an external influence on ou consumer behaviour as it is not a function of feelings or

r behaviour it is not a function of edge. It has a profound ellect on consumerendine habits The most obvious effects

habits. The most obvious effect is the level of posable income of each social class. The class. The rich have the ability to purchase more consumer goods than ce with less income and those ose soods are of higher quality. There is also a distinction in the type of knowledge. It has foods purchased.

Social class has, also a huge impact on the consumption patterns. As it is a variable for sement roduct market that satisfy the needs related to the particular lifestyle expressions. It has been searched that people related to higher status quos are more experimental with the product tegories, it is for this reason that they have access to more resources.

0.23. Explain the fundamental forces that shape cultural values.

Ans. Fundamental Forces Shaping Values: As we know, values are learned or pass on from neration to generation in society and within grouns Some values are permanent and some other a temporary. There are two types of forces which explain consistency and change in values. The best

trend of institutions that are family, religious institutining and educational institutions and the second source is early life time experience

  1. Trend of Institutions: Institutional trends can be based on family, religion culture and education. All these play an important role in shaping the cultural values of an individual. D) Family institutions: it is the oldest Institution A child learns a lot from the elder family

members and parents. It includes permanent values. The family influence is declining today due to less time available to parents for their children because both spouses are employed

Separation of nuclear family from the grandparents also contributes to the declining values

(b) Religious and Cultural Institutions in older days. r ous and cultural institutions formed values in the societies. In recent years the influence of these institutions have also faded. It is due to lack of faith in religious preference and affiliation. Due to downfall in religious values, retailers are facing the problems of shoplifters

(C) Educational Institutions: The third major institution that transmits value is educational institution. In early times, teachers had been from middle class families, they taught middle class values. Since 1950, teachers from other strata of societies joined. There had been clashes between students and teachers. In market, it led to aggressive consumerism. This resulted in diverse values in life styles.

  1. Early Life Time Experience: Experience takes a lesson from the past experiences of a product and service. It is correlated with learning. Learning helps an individual to grow and learn in culturally defined way. An individual is also affected much by his relationship experiences such as with his family members, relatives, friends and others. Such experiences help to shape the cultural values and personality of an individual

Q.24. What is sub-culture? How does age-sub-culture affect the consumer behaviour?

Ans. Sub-culture: A sub-culture is a culture within culture. There are more than one segment in the total culture which have their own beliefs, traditions, values,ete distinct from other sub-cultures. It has some attributes of culture which are common to all people and some distinctive traits of that sub-culture. Thus, there are two elements of a sub-culture:

  1. Unique beliefs, values and customs of the members of that sub-group. 2. Central core cultural themes shared by most of the population

Effect of Age Sub-Culture on Consumer Behaviours: Each stage in the family life cycle is a separate sub-culture. Here, there are only two sub-cultures in this group:

(a) Baby-Boomer Market: Baby-boomers refer to age group between early twenties to early forties. This age group is the largest buyers and users. They are physically more active and more! involved in host of leisure time pursuit he market can be segmented into two groups

(i)Younger boomers (between 20 to 29 years of are).

(ii) Older boomers between 30 to 40 years of age)

Younger boomers are likely to be sixth and older boomers are mostly married living with wives and children, separate from parents. Older boomers are financially sound as compar youngs, Political marketers have sub-divided the boomers into two Guppies and New collars in of their income.

(b) Elderly Consumers or Older Culture: This roup covers individuals of 65 years of majority in this group is of women, widowed. Most men are married and live with their spouse

Marketers are reculant to forget elderly consumers because they doubt their purchasing whereas the fact is that most of them are financially sound, Elderly is not a homogeneous group have been somented into three chronological age categories

(i)The young-old (between 65 to 74 years).

(ii)Old (between 75 to 4 years)

(iii)Old-old (above 84)

On the basis of motivation and adjustment, they have been divided into three categories:

(i)Healthy adjustment.   (ii) Fair adjustment (HD)   (ii) Poor adjustment. Service organisations have offered some services to olders, Senior citizens purchase goods a Services in cash, from nearby shop, use discount coupons, etc. Elders can be reached through TV print media

0.25. What are cross cultural influences on consumer behaviour?

Ans. Cross Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour: Consumer behaviour has the follow cross-cultural influences:

  1. Country of Origin Effects: The purchase intention of consumers is often influenced by image of the country of origin of the product or brand. Such an influence is called as the country originellect
  2. Consumer Ethnocentrism: Ethnocentrism means people viewing their own in-group central, as possessing proper standards of behaviour and as offering protection against appare threats from out groups. Consumer ethnocentrism is basically derived from this basic concent ethnocentrism and has been defined as the appropriateness, indeed morality of purchasing foreign made products.
  3. Targeting Consumers Across Cultures: Global marketers are increasingly flocking toward developing nations to capture the middle class market segment. But sometimes, they make the mistake of thinking that all markets are the same and that what sells in the domestic market will als sell in the international market.
  4. Global versus Local Brands: Marketers have always faced the dilemma of whether to position their brand as a global brand, thereby focusing on universal values and benefits or to position their brand differently in different global markets.

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