MBA Ist Semester Management Concepts And Applications Long Questions Answers Study material Notes 3 mock papers for self-assessment unit-wise content solved practises papers notes.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
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Q.1. Explain the principle of scientific management given by Taylor. Discuss any one of them.
Or Assess the contribution of F.W.Taylor’s scientific management to the development of management (2010-11) thought. Why is he regarded as the father of scientific management?
Ans. Principle of Scientific Management: Taylor stated that management is a true science which depends upon clearly defined laws and principles. These laws and principles are applicable to all form of human activities. He observed that the responsibilities of management must be planning, directing and organizing the work. He was of the opinion that the success of an enterprise depends upon its capability of eliminating wastages of all types whether related to man, machine or materials. He said that all such laws and principles of management must be strictly followed in an enterprise. These laws and principles are also known as aspects of scientific management. The principles of scientific management as described by Taylor are as follows:
1. Scientific analysis of work-study evaluation.
2. Incentive wage system.
4. Scientific selection and training of workers.
6. Administrative re-organization.
7. Mutual cooperation.
8. Mental revolution.
Scientific Analysis of Work Study Evaluation: Scientific management has determined the standard of work to be done for all the workers. These standards have been determined to keep in view the average efficiency of workers. These standards are based on job analysis, work-study, and experiments. Taylor has suggested a scientific process to be followed for determining the work standards. This process has to establish a work study and work measurement.
Work Study: Work study means the analytical study of all the factors which is affecting the ability to work of the workers, it is meant to improve the techniques of work. The process of work study has two sides: (a) Method study and (b) Work measurement.
(a) Method Study: In this study, first of all the whole process of production is examined. On the basis of this examination the materials, to manager makes all efforts to minimise the transportation of materials, to improve the techniques of use of machinery and fixtures, to improve the techniques of supervision and control. Thus, method study mainly aims at
improving the process of work and making it easy and economical.
(b) Work Measurement: Following three types of studies are included in the work measurement:
(i) Time Study: Time study is the study to measure the time taken by workers in doing various segments of a job. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of work for a day. This study is carried out with the help of stopwatch. Kimball and Kimball have defined time study as ‘Time study may be defined primarily as the art of observing and recording the time required to do each detailed element of an industrial operation. In this study, careful measurement of the time taken by the workers in doing several detailed parts of a particular work is made. This study should be adopted after the motion study.
(ii) Motion Study: It is a study involving the observation of the movement of workers involved in doing a particular job. The purpose of this study is to eliminate the useless activities so that the best way of doing a job may be determined and defined. This study is a prerequisite to the establishment of standard performance of a particular job. Following techniques must be adopted for motion study:
Some particular workers must be selected and the movement of these workers in doing their jobs must be carefully observed. Minimum time taken by these workers in doing their work should be noted carefully. It may be done with the help of a camera or a stopwatch.
A study should be made of unnecessary, slow, unproductive and faulty movements.
Both motion study and time study help in determining the best method of doing a particular job and standard time that must be taken in it.
(iii) Fatigue Study: It is a study of fatigue of all kinds, physical or physiological, mental and nervous, affecting adversely the health and efficiency of workers. Under this study, an attempt is made to determine when, how and why the fatigue occurs. It has been observed that the efficiency of workers goes on decreasing. The reason behind this decreasing efficiency is that as the time of work increase, fatigue increase, his enthusiasm decrease, his physical and mental stamina goes on reducing. As a result, the quality of production also goes on reducing and the possibility of accidents goes on increasing. The objects of fatigue study is to set the amount of work which must be done by a worker in a particular time and to regulate the working hours and to provide them the rest at certain intervals.
“A fair task is one that an average man can perform for a long period of years without injury to health and happiness’.
Q.2. Give the characteristics, merits and demerits of bureaucratic model.
Ans. Characteristics of Bureaucracy: The following are the characteristics of bureaucratic organisation:
1. Records of the enterprise are efficiently kept which serve as the memory of organisation.
2. The bureaucrats are appointed through selection, based on technical competence.
3. The personnel are employed by a contracture relationship between the employer and the employee as per the rules and regulations of the enterprise.
4. The decisions are entirely guided by rules and regulations and are entirely impersonal.
5. The rules, regulations and procedures are clearly laid down by the top administration.
6. The bureaucratic structure is hierarchical in nature. It means that each lower position is under the control of a higher one.
7. There is high degree of division of work (work specialisation) at both the operative and administrative levels.
Merits: The merits of bureaucratic model are as follows:
1. It brings rationality and predictability of behaviour to organisation.
2. It contributes to the efficiency in operations.
3. Specialisation is achieved by assigning a specific task to each and every person.
4. The emphasis is laid on job, not on person. Hence, the organisation contributes whether the employee continues or leaves.
5. The equal unbiased treatment with all the employees makes the organisation even more democratic
6. Since, under bureaucracy policies, rules and regulations are well formed. It ensures employee behaviour.
7. The fixed structures of duties and responsibilities specify smooth relationship among employees which in turn, facilitate management to implement any project.
8. The clearly defined and explained duties avoid overlapping or conflicting of job duties.
9. There is no delay in decision-making.
10. The allotment of right job to the right worker keeps the management to utilise the available
human resources to their maximum extent.
Demerits: The demerits of bureaucratic model are as follows:
1. It does not possess adequate means for dissolving differences and conflicts between ranks and more particularly between functional groups.
2. Its system of control and authority is outdated.
3. Impersonal nature of work presents in them, a sense of belongingness.
4. There is too much red-tapism and paper work which delays decision-making.
5. Rules and regulations are very rigid and inflexible which discourages the initiative and creativity of the employees.
6. Communication and innovative ideas are threatened as a result of hierarchical divisions.
7. It does not take into account informal organisation and emergent and unanticipated problems.
8. Bureaucracy does not adequately allow for personal growth and the development of mature personalities.
9. It modifies personality structure in such a way that the person in a bureaucracy becomes the dull, grey conditioned organisational man.
10. Strict norms and procedures restrict the management from getting mutual cooperation and coordination.
Q.3. Discuss the contribution of Henri Fayol in the management. Or In what respect have Fayol’s principles of management resulted in contributions to manag
Or Briefly describe the general principles of management as laid down by Henri Fayol. Or Elaborate Henri Fayol’s contribution to the principles of management.
Ans. Henri Fayol was born in 1841 in France. He got formal education in engineering and joined a junior executive in a French mining company in 1860 and rose to the position of its chief executive in ? 1888. As an executive, he was fully conversant with the principles and techniques of management. His workshops experience contributed a lot to his thoughts on management.
Fayol tried to develop a theory of management. He discussed the ‘Fayol’s fourteen principles of management’ which he described in his book, ‘General and Industrial Management is given below:
1. Division of Work: The principle described ‘Every employee should be assigned only one type of work so as to bring about specialisation in every activity.
Fayol applied the principle of division of work or specialisation to both the managerial as well as technical activities. He observed that specialisation belongs to the natural order. It tends to increase efficiency. It helps to avoid wastage of time and efforts that are caused by changes from one work to another.
2. Authority and Responsibility: Authority is the right to give orders to the subordinates. Responsibility means the duty which the subordinate is expected to perform by quality of his position in the organisation.
Responsibility must be expressed either in terms of function or in terms of objectives.
When a subordinate is asked to control the working of a machine, the responsibility is stated in terms of function and when a subordinate is asked to produce a certain number of pieces of a product, the responsibility is created in terms of objectives.