(a) Spread Rumors: Grapevine carries malicious and damaging rumors, which can create a suspicious and intense environment in the company.
(b) Distorts Messages: At times, details of a message are lost, as it is subject to filtering by many people. Sometimes people may add new details to it.
(c) Affects Productivity: A grapevine, at times can seriously hamper the development or productivity of a company.
(d) Lacks Control: A grapevine carries messages so quickly that it is difficult to control or regulate the flow of communication.
Essentials of Effective Communication
The essentials of good and effective communication are:
- which can be done by careful planning.
(b) Shared Activity: Effective communication is the responsibility of all the people in an organisation working towards a common goal.
(c) Use Feedback: Communication is complete only when the message is understood by the receiver.
(d) Active Listening: This is as important as any other element in the process of communication. It shows that communication is a joint responsibility of both the sender and the receiver.
(e) Politeness: It encourages participative communication involving people at all levels
leading to lateral and diagonal communication.
(f) Clarify Assumptions: Effective communication can never be based on assumptions. So, the sender must clarify them and the proceed with proper encoding of the message.
(g) Completeness: A message must be complete and incomplete communication annoys the receiver due to which proper feedback will not be achieved.
(h) Conciseness: An effective communication is concise and should not include unnecessary
Examples: If a message affects all members of the company in decided to give every employee a 10 per cent pay raise, it would be mo deliver this message to the group instead of individually.
4. What are the different types of listening? How listening can be improved of the participants in public speaking? Discuss with examples.
Ans. Types of Listening: Different types of listening are as follows
(a) Discriminative Listening: Discriminative listening is the most basic type of listening, whereby the difference between different sounds is identified: If one can hear differences, then he cannot make sense of the meaning that is expressed by such differences.
(b)Comprehension Listening: The next step beyond dis
Listening: The next step beyond discriminating between different sounds and sights is to make sense of them. To comprehend the meaning require lake sense of them. To comprehend the meaning requires first having a lexicon of words at our fingertips and also all rules of grammar and syntax by ingertips and also all rules of grammar and syntax by which we can understand what the saying. Comprehension listening is also known as content listening, informative listening and full listening.
(c ) Critical Listening: Critical listening is listening in order to evaluate and judge, 10m g about what is being said. This form of listening requires significant real-time cognitive non me listener analyses what is being said, relating it to existing knowledge and rules, whilst simultaneously listening to the ongoing words from the speaker.
(d) Biased Listening: Biased listening happens when the person hears only what they want to hear, typically misinterpreting what the other person says based on the stereotypes and other biases that they have. Such biased listening is often very evaluative in nature.
(e) Evaluative Listening: In evaluative listening or critical listening, we make judgments about what the other person is saying. Evaluative listening is particularly pertinent when the other person is trying to persuade us, perhaps to change our behaviour and may be even to change our beliefs. Evaluative listening is also called critical, judgemental or interpretive listening.
(f) Appreciative Listening: In appreciative listening, we seek certain information which will appreciate, for example that which helps meet our needs and goals. We use appreciative listening when we are listening to good music, poetry or maybe even the stirring words of a great leader.
(g) Sympathetic Listening: In sympathetic listening, we care about the other person and show this concern in the way we pay close attention and express our sorrow for their ills and happiness at their joys.
(h) Empathetic Listening: When we listen empathetically, we go beyond sympathy to seek a truer understand how others are feeling. This requires excellent discrimination and close attention to the nuances of emotional signals. When we are being truely empathetic, we actually feel what they are feeling.
(i) Therapeutic Listening: In therapeutic listening, the listener has a purpose of not only thising with the speaker but also to use this deep connection in order to help the speaker understand, change or develop in some way.
(j) Dialogic Listening: The word ‘dialogue’ stems from the Greek words’din’ me and ‘logos’ meaning ‘words’. Thus, dialogic listening means learning throngh comversation
And an engaged interchange of ideas and information in which we actively seek to learn more about the person and how they think. Dialogic listening is sometimes known as ‘relational listening’.
(k) Relationship Listening: Sometimes the most important factor in listening is in order to a relationship. This is why lovers talk for hours and attend closely to what each other has to say when the same words from someone else would seem to be rath listening is also important in areas such as negotiation and sales, where it is he likes you and trusts you.
Improvement of Listening in Public Speaking
Public speaking is considered to be an essential ability for those who desire to advance their career husiness and politics. But considering all the noise concerning the importance of speaking, listening is virtually ignored.
It can be argued that listening is every bit as important as speaking. Everyone desires to be heard and understood, and we reward people who provide us with those opportunities with our trust and loyalty.
Here are five ways to increase our listening abilities:
MBA Ist Year Business Communication Section Wise Questions With Answers Examination Papers
(a) Be Fully in the Moment: When someone is speaking it is vitally important to be fully present and in the moment with them. If something else is in your mind, like a call you have to make, or a text you need to answer, let them know, do what you need to do, and when you are m ade you are ready to listen.
(b) Put Yourself In Their Shoes: Whether you agree with the speaker or even have an interest in what they have to say, what they are saying is important to them. Imagine yourself in their situation, wanting only to have someone listen to them.
(c) Pick up Key Points and Let the Speaker Know You Did: Many peopde have trouble focussing on what someone is saying especially if they speak for longer than a minute or so. It is easy for our attention to drift to something else that we might find more interesting. If that’s the case, try to pick up a few key points in the conversation.
(d) Practice Active Listening: Most people are thinking of how they are going to reply when someone is talking Instead of doing that, try to focus completely on what the person is saying.
(e) Develop Curiosity, an Open Mind, and a Desire for Continuous Growth: People who are naturally curious, see conversations as learning opportunities. They are always looking to discover or learn something new and see everyone they talk to as having the potential to teach them something.
Or What are the points to be kept in mind at the time of writing emails? How SMS are different from emails and what issues and challenges are involved in both types of communication?
Ans. Refer to Unit-IV, Sec-C, Q.10.
Difference Between SMS and E-mail with Issues and Challenges
(a) Short Messaging Service (SMS) is a text communication service in the world of mobile
communications system. It involves using standard communications protocols to exchange short messages between fixed lines or handheld devices, but most commonly used in cell phones. Electronic mail (e-mail) is a way of exchanging digital messages or text communication in the world of internet and computer networks. It involves using Transmission Control Protocol-Internet Protocol (TCP-IP) to send messages in the form of packets to the users over computing devices with internet facility.
(b) For sending SMS, one needs to have a cell phone with short messaging service application (which is very common) and working sim from a telecom service provider. For sending an e-mail, one needs to have a computing device (PC or laptop), an internet connection and an e-mail address from the internet service provider.
(c) In SMS, there is a word limit of around 160 characters for which the user is charged a
certain price. Going over that limit (for the next 160 characters), the user is charged twice and so on. Moreover, most cell phones don’t have the option of going over 1000 characters. In e-mailing, there is no such word limit and the user can send right from a short message to a long descriptive one.
(d) SMS do not carry with themselves the additional benefits of attaching multimedia files or using colourful and different fonts. E-mailing is bundled with the benenes altams multimedia files like pictures, songs, other files. E-mails also have an option to use a different sized, coloured fonts, coloured backgrounds and themes.
(e) SMS captures over the precious memory because they automatically store themselves up in either the phone memory or in any external memory, objects like memory cards, hence reducing the amount of memory needed for other stuff. E-mails don’t require the memory of your PC or laptop but utilise the server’s memory to store themselves.
(f) SMS are preferred over e-mails when it comes to having quick and long hours of conversation
whereas e-mails are preferred if the message to be delivered is long and there is no cell phone connectivity between the two persons involved or the user doesn’t want to spend money on international SMS.
(g) Email is like placing a letter in the mail box. You can open it whenever you feel like whereas
SMS is like tapping on the shoulder and forcefully giving a message in the hand.
(h) SMS can read fast as if emergency and email can take time to be open as it requires internet connection.
5. What are business meetings? How to draft notice of the meeting keeping certain agendas in mind? Once a meeting is over, how minutes of the meeting are prepared? Take an example and accordingly prepare notice of meeting as well as draft minutes of the meeting.
Ans. Refer to Unit-V, Sec-C, Q. 1 and Sec-B, Q.3, 4.
Or What are business etiquettes? How to develop them? Discuss it with examples.
Ans. Refer to Unit-V, Sec-C, Q. 11.