Q.10. What do you mean by body language?(2011-12)
Or Explain the role of body language in effective communication.
Ans. Body Language: Body language is a form of mental and physical ability of human non-verbal communication, which consists of body postures, gestures, facial expressions and eye movements. Humans send and interpret such signals almost entirely. It may provide clues as to the attitude or state of mind of a person. For example, it may indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, relaxed state, pleasure, amusement and intoxication among many other clues.
Role of Body Language: The role of body language in effective communication is as under:
1. Body language complements verbal communication.
2. In face-to-face communication, no message can be completely sent across without the accompaniment of facial expressions and gestures. It helps in establishing rapport.
3. Body language add intensity to the process of communication. In the absence of any gestures
and proper eye contact, any face-to-face communication will look uninspiring.
4. Body language is an easily visible aspect of communication. It, therefore, helps the receiver of
the message in decoding the message.
5. Body language goes a long way in improving the overall atmosphere in the organisation. A
resourceful manager can make very effective use of it.
6. Body language provides a ready feedback to communication. It helps in sustaining communication by emphasising or illustrating the points made in verbal communication.
7. Body language is said to be the mirror of our heart and window of our soul. Thus, it speaks of status also. Postures and gestures of persons of higher status differ from that of persons of lower status.
8. Body language reveals the truth. It speaks our emotions and feelings.
Q.11. What do you understand by the term chronemics?
Ans. Another important form of non-verbal communication is use of time or time language. It involves the meaning given to time dimension, when we are communicating it to someone. Edward. T. Hall was the first scholar who investigated the importance of this element of inter personal communication.
Delay in replying to a personal or business letter or a phone call early in the morning, coming late, for the work or meetings, etc. are examples of chronemics in non-verbal communication. Completion of task within a specific time-span communicates sincerity, hard work, loyalty and reliability, whereas frequent late coming and absenteeism may communicate unreliability, laziness and disinterestedness of the person.
Time as a non-verbal sign is sometimes misunderstood. Only in certain societies precise time is of great relevance. Concept of time is culture-specific. For example, in the U.S., being on time for appointments, for work each day and for deadlines communicates favourable non-verbal messages. Lateness conveys a very unfavourable message. In some societies, punctuality is a sign of good manners. Continual tardiness can be a sign that a person wants to avoid something.
Q.12. What is paralanguage? What are its limitations?
Ans. Paralanguage: The non-verbal factors like tone of voice, the emphasis given, the breaks in the sentence, the speed of delivery, the degree of loudness or softness and the pitch of the voice, which affect the spoken words is called paralanguage.
Parolanguage is a study of how a speaker verbalises. Voice quality and the extra sounds one makes while speaking are also a part of non-verbal communication. It shows as to how the words are spoken and altered. The word ‘Para’ refers to ‘Like’. Thus,’Paralanguage’ is ‘Like language’. The language operates
signs and signals and stresses on ‘How’ rather than on what, as in other forms of communication. The paralanguage acts as a middle path between verbal and non-verbal communication. It tells the communicators on ‘How to communicate’ and not what to communicate.
Limitations of Paralanguage: The various limitations of paralanguage are listed below:
1. Lack of Uniformity: Paralanguage does not bring uniformity in communicating because of speakers belonging to different communities and cultures.
2. Requisition of Patience: Paralanguage requires the listener to be patient and open minded as it may necessarily prejudice him because of speakers voice quality or pitch.
3. Chances of Misguiding or Misleading: Paralanguage sometimes misguides or misleads the receiver of the messages as he may not be able to understand the message in its original form.
4. Requires Attention for Understanding: Paralanguage requires a lot of attention on the part listener. He has to often analyse as to what is said and how to say it.
5. Lack of Reliability: ‘Paralanguage’ is ‘Like language’ but ‘Not language’. It cannot, thus, be reli upon completely.
Q.13. Why should paralanguage be used?
Ans. The various uses of paralanguage are mentioned below:
- Completion of Message: Paralanguage helps in proper completion of the message as it is ve closely allied to language.
2 Personaland Educational Background ofthe Sender: Paralanguage is helpful in understanding the personal and educational background of the sender of the communication.
3. Regional or National Background: Paralanguage itself speaks of the communicator’s regional or national background and tends to be very helpful in understanding the message.
4. Mental State of the Communication: Paralanguage gives clues about the mental state of the communicator’s regional or national background and tends to be very helpful in understanding the message.
5. Learning Exercise: Paralanguage helps the receiver to learn from the signals and thus is a good learning exercise for an attentive listener.
Q.14. Give the importances of paralanguage.
Ans. The importances of paralanguage could be listed as under:
1. Mental State of the Communicator: Paralanguage gives clues about the mental state of the communicator of the message and thus suggests ways to deal with them.
2. Learning Exercise: Paralanguage helps the receiver to learn from the signals and thus, is a good learning exercise for an attentive listener.
3. Completion of Message: Paralanguage helps in proper completion of the message as it is very closely allied to language.
4. Personal and Educational Background of the Sender: Paralanguage is helpful in understanding the personal and educational background of the sender of the communication.
5. Regional and National Background: Paralanguage itself speaks of the communicator’s regional or national background and tends to be very helpful in understanding the message.
Q.15. What do you understand by space language? What role does it play in business relationships?(2014-15)
Ans. Space Language/Proxemics: It is the study of how people use the physical space around them and what this use says about them. People have a tendency to put an invisible boundary between themselves and others which is called personal feature space. By observing the physical distance between two individuals, one can judge the relationship between them.
In organisations, the control of space generally constitutes an extension of one’s personal power. Status can often be determined by how much space a person occupies. The more status a person has, the easier it is for him or her to invade someone else’s space. For example, a manager can walk into his subordinate’s office but a subordinate has to take permission to walk to the manager’s office.
Role of Business Relationships: Space language plays a wide role in business relationships. The control of space maintains one’s personal power and even the status of an individual is determined by the amount of space occupied by him. The high ranking persons occupy more space as compared to lower ranking individuals. Thus, space language determines the most suitable distance between a person and another on certain situations that will make both of them comfortable.
Q.16. What do you mean by written communication? What are its characteristics?
Ans. Written Communication: Written communication has great significance in today’s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Communication through words may be in written or oral. Written communication entails transmission of messages in full reality. It is the way to transmit messages in writing for proper implementation of organisational functions.
Characteristics of Written Communication: The main characteristics of written communication are:
1. Whenever there is need for formal communication, it is the written mode that is preferred.
2. Written communication is mostly used for documentation.
3. This is used for circulation of information in the organisation.
4. Written communication is essentially a creative activity which requires conscious and cr. 8 effort.
5. There are not many rules of grammar
are not many rules of grammar for oral communication as there are for wie communication.
6. Written common communication has fewer cycles than face-to-face communication and most are cycle events.
7. Another important feature is the time factor which it involves.
8. It is an important feature of written communication where the presence of just the senderes
the receiver is sufficient at a given point in time to continue the process of communication c