Q.17. What is the basic purpose of writing?
Ans. Writing is always a deliberate action with a clear purpose. The purpose of writing is communicate ideas. facts, impressions, analysis, synthesis, conclusions, etc. A W e experiences with her or his readers. However, it is true that the writer should know how much readin time he could seek from his reader or readers so that he succeeds in expressing himself. A good write is one who succeeds not only in making the best possible use of his time but also in presenting or her matter in such a way that the reading of which makes the read willing, with interest and with no sense of loss or wastage of Writing O8x extend the duration of reading, thinking and further reading af reveals one’s ability e finally contributing his or her best to the cause of writing, b to think clearly and to use Thinking and writing go together. A writer who starts wrath language effectively. after a due reader-research and a due evaluation of his or her capability in the field he or she chooses to write, collecting compiling resources, arranging them and shaping them, is also thinking simultaneously. Thinks enters the process of writing accordingly. While writing, the writer constantly thinks about the she and texture his or her writing is taking, the direction it is maintaining, the pace of the text, the expressive it has adapted to the arrangement of ideas and thoughts it is incorporating, the strutting of paragraph or other modes it is catering to. In this regard one thing that requires specific mentioning is that text which the writer produces also acts as the source for his or her further thinking. In the process of encoding the text with his or her stock of words and expressions on the register, the subject or theme demands the writer makes his or her journey with the words that he or she gathers, new ang new approaches, connotations, new ideas and finally new expressions and new treatments. Thou the writer has a mental or written framework or an outline to proceed on this activity, sometimes completely new text grows out of the text that the writer has presumed his or her writing would tak shape of that level.
Q.18. Write a short note on clarity in writing.
Ans. The message must be put in simple terms to ensure clarity. Words must mean the same thin to the receiver as they do to the sender. Complex issues must be compressed into themes, slogans o stereotypes that have simplicity and clarity. In order to ensure clarity in oral communications, you should use accurate and familiar words with proper intonation, stresses and pauses. Your languish should consist of simple words and short sentences. Thoughts should be clear and well organize Thus, you should know what you want to say and why.
The important considerations in attaining clarity are as follows:
1. Choose precise, concrete and familiar simple words.
2. Construct effective sentences and paragraphs.
To a layman, the term home, pay, invoice and advocate are more familiar than the terms domi remuneration, statement of account and lawyer respectively. Simple and short words are more effective data than pompous and heady words.
Q.19. What are the principles of effective writing skills?
Ans. While doing effective writing, the following principles should be kept in mind:
1. Use Familiar Words: For effective writing, simple and familiar words should be used in place of difficult and unfamiliar words. Simple words make the better understanding of the written message.
2. Avoid Technical Words or Jargon: Jargon refers to the special language of particular trade or profession. This language is easily understood by the members of the professional group but cannot be understood by the outsiders. Therefore, efforts should be made to minimise its use while communicating the persons outside their group.
3. Avoid Needless Information: Unnecessary information should be avoided to make writing effective. The writer should keep in mind the needs of the reader rather than their information at his command.
4. Answer of Necessary Questions: For effective writing, necessary questions should be answered properly. For example:
(a) What to write?
(b) Whom to write?
(c) Why to write?
(d) Medium of writing.
(e) Where and when to write?
5. Avoid Surplus Words: Very often we use words that add nothing to the meaning of the sentence. For example; “Three conditions should be fulfilled’ is better than “There are three conditions that should be fulfilled!
6. Use Strong Words in Place of Long Expressions: Short words are preferable instead of long words. For example; In place of ‘Enclosed herewith please find’ we will use the word ‘Enclosed and in place of ‘With reference to’ word ‘Refer’ should be used to make writing effective.
Q.20. Specify deadly the important rules of good writing.(2007-08, 12-13)
Ans. The important rules of good writing includes:
1. Use of plain and conversational language.
2. Write to express and not to impress.
3. Writing should be clear.
4. Prefer the familiar word to the unfamiliar.
5. Prefer plain words instead of difficult ones.
6. Prefer nouns and verbs to adjectives and adverbs.
7. Prefer concrete or picture nouns and action verbs.
8. Never use a long word when a short word can be used.
9. Master the simple declarative sentence.
10. Prefer the simple sentence to the complicated.
11. Vary your sentence length.
12. Use the active voice and not the passive one.
13. Put the statements in the positive form.
14. Use short paragraphs to express your ideas.
15. Cut needless words, sentences and paragraphs.
16. Put the words you want to emphasise at the beginning or end of your sentence.
17. Revise and rewrite. Improvements are possible.
18. Develop a natural style only.
Q.21. Enumerate clearly important guidelines for writing a summary.(2007-08)
Ans. Guidelines for Writing a Summary: The purpose of a summary is to give the reader in about 1/3 of the original length of an article/lecture, a clear objective picture of the original text. The summary restates only the main points of text or a lecture without giving examples or details, such as dates, numbers or statistics. To write a summary, following steps must be followed:
Or Write a short note on good summary writing techniques.(2006-07)
1. Organise the notes into an outline which includes main ideas and supporting point examples or details.
2. Write an introductory paragraph that begins with a frame, including an in-text citation source and author as well as reporting verb to introduce the main idea.
3. The main idea or argument needs to be included in the first sentence. Then, mention the aspects discussed in the article.
4. For a one-paragraph summary, discuss each supporting point in a separate sentence
5. For a multi-paragraph summary, discuss each supporting point in a separate paragra Introduce it in the first sentence.
6. Support your topic, sentence with the necessary reasons or arguments raised by author/lecturer but omit all references to details, such as dates or statistics.
7. Use discourse markers that reflect the organisation and controlling area of the original, es cause-effect, process, etc.
Q.22. Explain Guffey’s 3*3 writing process.
Ans. Guffey’s 3×3 writing process is a very easy to understand writing process. It is divided into three easy to use phrases-prewriting, writing and revising. Guffey’s 3×3 writing process explains ctly what to do in each of the three phases. Writing process is divided into three stages which an oken down into three sub-steps.
1. Phase 1. Prewriting Phase:
(a) Analyse to define the purpose, select the most appropriate channel and visualise the audience.
(b) Anticipate to put one in the reader’s position and predict his/her reactions to the message
(c) Adapt to shape message to benefit reader.
2. Phase 2. Preparing First Draft/Writing Phase:
(a) Research to collect data formally and informally.
(b) Organise to group ideas into a list or outline, choose a strategy.
(c) Compose to write a first draft, consider using a word processor,
3. Phase 3. Rewriting or Revising phase:
(a) Revise for clarity, tone conciseness and vigour that improves readability.
(b) Editing to determine credibility and correction. Proofread for spelling, grammar, punctuation and format, checks overall appearance.
(d) Reconstructing final draft for preparing final product or outcome.
(e) Evaluate for determining whether final product achieves its purpose.
Q.23. Write a short note on coherence.
Ans. Coherence is an important feature of effective writing, Coherence in tung. Coherence in a sentence implies how various parts are sticking to each other with no word superflous and no word grows when sender and receiver perceive the transmitted thought in the regarding coherence are as follows:
1. Using words such as it, that or this at the beginning of sentences frequently leads to confuse about the word’s referent.
2. A second grammatical contributor to incoherence is misplaced modifiers.
3. A third incoherency grows from lack of clarity between multiple subjects followed by singular pronoun.
4. Standard grammar overcomes problems with indefinite meaning.
Q.24. Explain about electronic writing process.
Ans. Electronic writing process consists of following three phases:
(a) Analyses the situation.
(b) Define your purpose and develop an audience profile.
(c) Gather information, determine audience needs and obtain the information necessary to satisfy those needs.
(d) Select the right medium, choose the best medium for delivering your message.
(e) Organise the information, define your main idea, limit your scope, select a direct or anindirect approach and outline your content.
(a) Adapt to your audience. Be sensitive to audience needs with a ‘you’ attitude, politeness, positive emphasis, and bias-free language.
(b) Build a strong relationship with your audience by establishing your credibility and projecting your company’s image.
(c) Control your style with a conversational tone, plain English, and appropriate voice.Compose the message.
(d) Choose strong words that will help you create effective sentences and coherent paragraphs.
(a) Revise the message–Evaluate content and review readability then edit and rewrite for conciseness and clarity.
(b) Produce the message–Use effective design elements and suitable layout for a clean, professional appearance.
(C) Proofread the message–Review for errors in layout, spelling and mechanics.
(d) Distribute the message-Deliver your message using the chosen medium; make sure all documents and all relevant files are distributed successfully.
Q.25. State the considerations regarding choice of words in writing messages.(2015-16)
Ans. The considerations regarding choice of words in writing messages are:
1. Words must be selected such that the reader will understand. The receiver of the message must
be able to decode what we transmit and it become possible when we encode the message with which he is familiar. For this, the writer must use the familiar and simple words. Short words communicate better whereas long words confuse the reader so choose the short over the long word. Technical words must be used with caution. Strong vigorous and concrete words must be used. One should avoid the camouflaged verb.
2. Words are required to be selected for precise communication. The greater is the knowledge,
the better one is likely to be able to write. Knowledge of language enables to use words that come close to giving the meanings one wants to communicate.
3. Masculine words or biased language must be avoided. The masculine pronouns must be avoided for both sexes for which reword the sentence, make the sentence plural or substitute, neutral next press ions. The words that demean women’s status are to be avoided. So, to increase the effectiveness as a communicator, the message has to be analysed to ensure that language is unbiased.
Q.26. “How do you speak is more important than what do you speak.’ Comment. (2014-15)
Ans. Paralanguage tells the communicator on ‘How to speak and not what to speak’. It is a middle path between verbal and non-verbal communication and uses various types of signs and signals in order to have a communication between people. It is effective like oral communication. In this language, the style of saying of something is considered. So, the study of paralanguage focuses on how do you speak and not only what do you speak. Two identical verbal messages may communicate entirely different meanings when the tone of voice is different.
While communicating, the tone of voice, loudness, softness, rate of speech and the words choose to accent, are important. Even, we can change the total meaning of the sentence by change the emphasis in a sentence. On the words, when we say emphasis, the pattern of saying something changes also, the meaning of the sentence like what we want to say and what about we are going t say, changes further.
So it becomes very important while communicating that how do we speak is more important what do we speak, our way to talking even can impress others or one can get demoralized or distressed by our savings or talking’s. So, our speech must be impressive and meaningful.