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What do you understand by Dale's Cone Model of Experience

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience

What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience

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What do you understand by Dale's Cone Model of Experience
What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience

B. Edger Dale’s Cone Experience Model


It is a sort of classification which was presented by Edger Dale. This classification was presented on the basis of experiences gained with the help of audio-visual means. Edger Dale has given the name “Cone of Experiences” to this classification. The effort has been made to place all types of experiences a person gains from the helping material and those helping means which provide these experiences into various categories or classes, These categories have been presented in the form of a cone. The experiences included in this cone range from direct experiences to abstract thinking. The main objective of this experience-based classification is to provide a multi-sensory experience. (What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience)

Dale’s main assumption behind this classification is that the depth of experience goes on increasing if we increase the number of sense-organs and activity-organs in order to provide experience to the students through teaching work. The students can be provided core experiences by activating their multi-sense organs. The knowledge related to the contents is acquired by including affective aspects along with multi-sense organs and this knowledge becomes stable.

According to Edger Dale, the experiences gained through senses occur due to internal activity. This activity IS individual too. This internal activity depends upon the mental stage of the students. According to Edger Dale, the presentation and demonstration by the teacher is of one type only, but the students manage the experiences gained from them in their own way at their mental level. That is why they are known as core experiences.

From this point of view, the process of experiencing is psychological and internal.

A human being is often capable of seeking experiences from the following resources or means:

  1. Experiences gained by doing an activity with the sense organs which are in direct contact.
  2. Observation of pictures and figures presented in other forms.
  3. Experiences gained through oral or printed words and symbols.
  4. Experiences gained through working organs.

Verbal responses are specially utilized in the teaching activities. The student gains experiences through these means. The teacher has to perform the following three types of activities in order to gain experiences from these means:

  • Verbal interaction or telling,
  • Showing,
  • Doing

The teacher uses all the above three activities in his teaching methods strategies and techniques etc. which create learning conditions in the class and the same learning conditions work for behavior development.

Edger Dale’s Cone Model

The main objective of Edger Dale’s Cone Model is to make clear the relative effectiveness of helping teaching material and support systems. The following four types of teaching effects of audio-visual aids have been shown in this cone model i.e., the main components of this model are as follows:

  • Teaching Aids and Techniques.
  • Operations and senses in the context of helping materials.
  • Relation of multi-sensory and core experience.
  • Effectiveness of supporting systems and teaching aids.

Edger Dale’s cone model is represented in a triangular form. At the bottom of this cone, direct and meaningful experiences are included. The strength of these experiences is the maximum. If we throw a sight on this cone, a long line from top to bottom depicts the decreasing effect i.e., the effect of oral words is the minimum and the effect of direct means is seen as the maximum.

The fore part of the cone shows oral communication. As we move from the upper end to the lower end, the effectiveness of the experiences will go on increasing. Real direct experiences are considered to be the most effective comparison to oral signs.

Experiences included in Cone Model and Teaching Aids Required for them

Edger Dale has placed his teaching material in the order of relative effectiveness in this cone model. This order or sequence is as follows:

  1. Direct and Purposeful Experiences: Direct experiences are multi-sensory experiences, such as seeing, hearing, walking, smelling, touching, etc. These experiences include multi-sensory activities. These experiences are meaningful also and we gain pure knowledge of the subject matter from them.
  2. Contrived Experiences: These experiences include model making, working in a laboratory, surveying, etc. The real object is simplified in it. In certain situations, the perception of real objects is not possible. Sometimes their (real objects) size is larger or too much smaller. (What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience)
  3. Participation in Drama: Experiences are also provided to the students by role-playing, Hence, the students gain experiences from various roles. These experiences are also meaningful. While playing the roles, it is necessary to pay attention to students.
  4. Experiences by Demonstration: For the clarification of many complex processes, the demonstration is done. But during this demonstration, the student is passive and the teacher is active. This provides visual as well as auditory experiences, Demonstration is conducted by the teacher and all the students are viewers and listeners. In this, lecture demonstration is more effective. The teacher should give on account of all these activities side by side which he performs. Only then the demonstration would be proved meaningful and useful.
  5. Educational or Field Trips: Contact between school and community can be established by this type of technique. The student gains core experience from this. Direct experiences can be gained from educational trips. Direct experiences have special utility in classroom teaching. (What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience)
  6. Exhibition and Museum: The students can be taken to some exhibitions and museums outside of class where it is possible to show the objects in the original. The exhibition can be arranged in the schools so that the students may gain direct experiences.
  7. Radio: Radio allows audio activity only while television involves both audio and visual activities. From this point of view, radio is less effective than television. In radio, only the auditory senses are active. Radio involves one-way communication only but still, radio is no less important in knowledge acquisition. Educational material can be broadcast effectively through radio too.
  8. Television: The observation of distant objects becomes possible with the help of television. One can have an opportunity to see the direct telecast of real events. The films of the past period can be telecast on television. The students show interest too to watch the program on television. (What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience)
  9. Verbal Teaching: Verbal teaching technique is generally used in the class. The teacher speaks and goes on to write on the chalkboard. The presentation of thoughts, principles, etc. is possible through words. The students gain knowledge through their audio sense organs and acquire experiences. Dale has given more importance to writing in his model. Student only hears when speaking occurs while the person also sees while writing. Hence, the student gains bi-sensory experiences.
  10. With educational technology, the possibility of problems related to indiscipline is reduced substantially.
  11. Emphasis on the Needs of Special Children: General teaching often meets the needs of normal students. But by means of educational technology, special children can also be benefitted. Visual means are more emphasized for those who have impaired hearing. For those who are unable to see, the use of tape-recorder or radio, etc. is emphasized. Similarly, for the learning of mentally retarded children, educational technology is used. For intelligent children, such technology is used can develop their intelligence. (What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience)
  12. Emphasis on Using Advanced Teaching Methods: To conduct the teaching process effectively, the use of advanced teaching methods is emphasized. The use of educational technological means contributes a lot in this direction. By using them, the psychological needs of the students are also satisfied, such as-project the method, learning by doing, the play-way method, etc.
  13. Emphasis on the Development of Mental Abilities: When a teacher teaches orally or the students study with, the help of books, then the mental abilities and potentialities do not develop properly. The child only crams. But by using educational technological means and by making the teaching-learning more live, many opportunities for developing the imaginative power, observation power, logic power, and thinking power of the students are available. Also, students get opportunities for the development of higher mental abilities and capacities such as originality, creativity, and employability.
  14. Appropriateness and Clarity of Subject-Matter: Sometimes there are certain concepts, thoughts, or terms of various subjects which are difficult to understand from the books. These cannot be understood even through the lecturer’s method. It becomes a difficult problem for the teacher to clarify them by means of words or language. Many times Educational Technology solves such a situation. By using educational technological means, the most difficult subject matter can also be made easily clear and meaningful. For example, to understand a cycle, pump, water pump, or structure of any eye or heart, their models can be prepared and their functioning can be explained in a simple way.
  15. Emphasis on Communication Expression: The entire teaching-learning process puts emphasis on communication expression to the students. For this, verbal and non-verbal expressions are very important. But, this expression merely through words and signals cannot prove effective in the teaching-learning process. Sometimes this linguistic expression creates problems such as disinterest in reading-teaching, presenting as such without knowing the meaning and forgetting quickly the learnt material etc. Educational technology can contribute especially to avoiding all these problems.
  16. Emphasis on Direct Experiences: Experience plays the role of a good teacher. But sometimes it is difficult to have direct experiences. In order to achieve these experiences, time, money, and energy are required which everybody does not possess. From this point of view, educational technology means play important role in providing alternate experiences, and hence teaching and learning can be made more meaningful and live.
  17. Still Pictures: In still pictures, the projection of slides, film strip pictures, etc. are included. This increases the understanding of the student. For this purpose, the overhead projector (ORP) is being used more frequently. Transparencies are prepared for this purpose. The students show more interest in the projection of still pictures.

Description of Edger Dale’s Cone of Experience

What do you understand by Dale's Cone Model of experience? Explain in detail.

Utility or Advantages of Edger Dale’s Model

The main utility of Edger Dale’s Cone Model is as follows:

  • Various types of teaching materials have been included in this model which can be explained from a learning point of view.
  • In this model, the teaching aids have been discussed with reference to the comprehensiveness of learning experiences.
  • The comprehensiveness and depth of learning experiences depend upon the sense organs and working organs.
  • The activeness of multi-sensory organs pushes towards core experiences.
  • The description of the activeness of sense organs has been given in the utility of teaching aids i.e., which sense organ gets activated by using which particular teaching aid?
  • The use of teaching aid increases the effectiveness of teaching. The classification of aids has been done according to the sequence of its effectiveness.
  • The use of motion pictures makes multi-dimensional observation possible which provides core experiences.
  • By using aids, the cognitive aspect and affective aspect also develops, and also the retention increases.
  • The students show more interest in projected aids and the effectiveness of teaching increases.
  • Core experiences are possible from direct observations only. Core experiences are provided through experiments in a laboratory, surveys, and educational trips. Students gain real knowledge from this approach. But sometimes, its use is not possible in the teaching of the contents of all the subjects. In this situation, aids are to be used in the class. This aid helps in providing the core experiences. (What do you understand by Dale’s Cone Model of Experience)

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